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Endodontics encompasses the study (practice) of the basic and clinical sciences of normal dental pulp, the etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the dental pulp along with associated periradicular conditions. In clinical terms, endodontics involves either preserving part, or all of the dental pulp in health, or removing all of the pulp in irreversible disease. This includes teeth with irreversibly inflamed and infected pulpal tissue. Not only does endodontics involve treatment when a dental pulp is present, but also includes preserving teeth which have failed to respond to non-surgical endodontic treatment, or for teeth that have developed new lesions, e.g., when root canal re-treatment is required, or periradicular surgery. Endodontists specialize in diagnosing complex causes of tooth pain. They also perform other dental surgeries, including:

Endodontic retreatment :

Removes and replaces materials used during a previous root canal that did not heal properly.

Tooth extraction (removal) surgery :

Pulling a tooth when its tissues are too severely damaged to be saved.